These ghost lights—variously called jack-o’-lanterns, hinkypunks, hobby lanterns, corpse candles, fairy lights, will-o’-the-wisps, and fool’s fire—are created when gases from decomposing plant matter ignite when they come in contact with electricity or heat or as they oxidize. For centuries before there was this scientific explanation, people told stories to explain the mysterious lights. In Ireland, dating as far back as the 1500s, those stories often revolved around a guy named Jack.
Legend Has ItAs the story goes, Stingy Jack, often described as a blacksmith, invited the Devil to join him for a drink. Stingy Jack didn’t want to pay for the drinks from his own pocket, and convinced the Devil to turn himself into a coin that could be used to settle the tab. The Devil did so, but Jack skipped out on the bill and kept the Devil-coin in his pocket with a silver cross so the Devil couldn’t shift back to his original form. Jack eventually let the Devil loose, but made him promise that he wouldn’t seek revenge on Jack, and wouldn’t claim his soul when he died.
Later, Jack irked the Devil again by convincing him to climb up a tree to pick some fruit, and then carving a cross in the trunk so the Devil couldn’t climb back down (the Devil is, apparently, a sucker). Jack freed him again, on the condition that the Devil once again not take revenge and not claim Jack’s soul.
When Stingy Jack eventually died, God would not allow him into Heaven, and the Devil, keeping his word, rejected Jack’s soul at the Gates of Hell. Instead, the Devil gave him a single burning coal to light his way and sent him off into the night to “find his own Hell.” Jack put the coal into a carved-out turnip and has supposedly been roaming the Earth with it ever since. In Ireland, the ghost lights seen in the swamps were said to be Jack’s improvised lantern moving about as his restless soul wandered the countryside, and he and the lights were dubbed “Jack of the Lantern,” or “Jack O’Lantern.”
Old Tale, New TraditionsThe legend immigrated with Irish laborers to the New World and collided with another Old World tradition and a New World crop. Making vegetable lanterns was a tradition of the British Isles, and carved-out turnips, beets, and potatoes were stuffed with coal, wood embers, or candles as impromptu lanterns to celebrate the fall harvest. As a prank, kids would sometimes wander off the road with a glowing veggie and trick their friends and travelers into thinking they were Stingy Jack or another lost soul. In America, pumpkins were easy enough to come by and good for carving, and got absorbed both into the carved lantern tradition and the associated prank. Over time, kids refined the prank and began carving crude faces into the pumpkins to kick up the fright factor and make the lanterns look like a disembodied heads. By the mid-1800s, Stingy Jack’s nickname was applied to the prank pumpkin lanterns that echoed his own lamp, and the pumpkin jack-o’-lantern got its name.
Towards the end of the 19th century, jack-o’-lanterns went from just a trick to a seasonal decorating standard, including at a high-profile 1892 Halloween party hosted by the mayor of Atlanta. In one of the earliest instances of the jack-o’-lantern as Halloween decor, the mayor’s wife had several pumpkins—lit from within and carved with faces—placed around the party, ending Jack O’Lantern’s days of wandering, and starting his yearly reign over America’s windowsills and front porches.